Urine Analysis in addition to Laboratory Tests
The data of Urine analysis usually taken are divided into two; qualitative in addition to quantitative data of Urine laboratory tests. As their names imply, qualitative tests is usually to test for the qualities of the Urine such as colour, transparency, etc, while quantitative test, try to find the amounts of some indexes within the Urine such as volume, specific gravity, amount of pathologic components of Urine (blood, proteins, creatinine, etc).
Qualitative data of Urine laboratory tests
Colour of Urine
• within the first day of child's Life, Urine is usually colorless
• On the 2nd-4th days- dark-reddish, because big quantity of Urea is usually excreted.
• In breast fed infants the urine is usually almost colorless until they start to drink fruit juices in addition to to eat different foods at the age of 4-6 months
• In formula fed infants, all children in addition to grown-ups, the urine is usually yellow like straw.
modifications of Urine colour can be physiological. For example;
• Colorless urine is usually excreted when a person drinks a lot of fluids
• Urine acquires Orange colour when the food contains a lot of carotene (carrot);
• Urine will be pink after eating red-beet;
• Some medicines influence the Urine colour. SO, rifampicin causes the red colour of Urine, analginum in addition to sulfacylamides-pink, mitroxolinum-saffron-yellow.
Some Urine discoloration is usually of diagnostic value in case of Kidney disorders:
• Dark-brown Urine is usually a pathognomic symptom of virus hepatitis; the cause of such colour is usually big amount of bile pigments hyperbilirubinuria); characteristic sign is usually forming of yellowish foam after shaking such Urine.
• Smoky brown Urine, which resembles tea or cola, is usually formed in case of nephron damage, when RBCs pass through the basal membrane of glomerular capsule in addition to losses the hemoglobin. of which is usually the main sign of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
• Bright red colour can be found when "fresh" RBCs pass into urine in case of trauma, kidney tuberculosis, crystals, cystitis, urethritis, renal tumor.
• Dark-violet discoloration is usually the sign of considerable RBCs hemolysis in case of poisoning, Rh-conflict, mistakes during blood transfusion etc.
The Urine can be cloudy only in newborn child for 2-3 days after birth. After of which each healthy person excrete transparent Urine. Cloudy hazy, darkly opalescent Urine can be found in case of Urinary tract infection, enlarged amount of crystals, RBCs or WBCs, pus or fats in Urine.
Quantitative data of Urine Laboratory tests
Diuresis means the process of Urine production. The Urine-volume (UV per 24 hours) is usually its laboratory reflection. Its meanings depend on age.
Pathological modifications of Urine volume
• Poliuria is usually diagnosed when the urine volume exceeds the normal ranges in 2 times in addition to more. of which is usually the often sign of disorders with different systems decreasing of cardiac edema, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipiduc). Renal poliutia develops in case of back progress of nephritic edema, chronic renal failure.
• Oliguria means the decreasing of daily urine volume to of age ranges in addition to less. Renal Oliguria is usually one of the most significant manifestations of renal failure. There also can be extra-renal causes of Oliguria such as massive profuse bleeding, diarrhea, poisoning, cardiax failure, shock. of which is usually very important to identify the reason of Oliguria because the therapeutic plans can be quite different when the Urine volume decrease less than 5% of normal data or there is usually no Urine per whole day. of which is usually one of the most dangerous conditions for the child's life in addition to needs the emergency medical help.
• Anuria can be
1. renal-the kidneys don't form the urine due to considerable damage of their tissues.
2. postrenal (mechanical)-the Urine is usually produced, yet of which doesn't go into the bladder because of upper tract or bladder neck obstruction.
• Nocturia, the normal correlation of daytime in addition to nighttime Urine Volume is usually 2:1. of which means of which because of bigger fluid intake in addition to physical activity, Urine excretion is usually more intensive during daytime. If the night Urine volume is usually bigger, of which is usually the manifestation of decreased renal function.
Ph of Urine
of which sign depends on age, food habits, prescribed medicines in addition to differs in different people as well as in one person in different periods.
of which is usually the concentration of electrolytes in addition to different substances dissolve in Urine. Decreasing of specific gravity can be seen in case of drinking a lot of fluids, severe renal failure, back progress of edema, diabetes insipidus. Increasing is usually observed at Oliguria, diabetes mellitus, excretion of marked amount of protein. Excretion of 0.1g of glucose per 11 of Urine causes enlargement of specific gravity on 0.004; 0.4 of protein-on 0.001.
Indexes of Urine analysis which are deviations of the normal ones are indications for metabolic disorders